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# Magnetic Pull Force

An analysis of the magnetic pull force which arises between the poles of an electromagnet
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## Overview

Key facts

For an electromagnet characterized by the area , the magnetic flux density , and the relative magnetic permeability , the magnetic pull force is:

where is the magnetic permeability of free space.

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Constants

Consider an electromagnet of area and magnetic flux density , and also imagine a displacement of as highlighted in Figure 1.

We know that the energy stored in a magnetic field of no magnetic saturation is given by:

where is the volume, the magnetic permeability of free space, and the relative magnetic permeability (for a more detailed discussion on the energy stored in a magnetic field see Stored Energy ).

Thus, the change in energy stored following the displacement will be:

where () is the change in volume. This leads to:

where refers to the work done. However, we also know that work can also be defined as:

where is the force ().

Taking into account equations (3) and (4), we get that:

Instant calculator eq(6)

from which the magnetic pull force becomes:

Example:

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##### Example - Magnetic pull force of an electromagnet
Problem
Consider the electromagnet diagramed in Figure E1, characterised by the lengths , , and , and the area . Given that a current of passes through a coil with turns and relative magnetic permeability of , find the total magnetic pull force.

Workings
We know that the total magnetic reluctance of a magnetic circuit of length , cross-sectional area , and relative magnetic permeability , with an air gap of length , is given by:

As, in our case, (), (), , and (), we obtain the total magnetic reluctance:

which gives:

The total magnetic flux is given by:

where is the magnetomotive force:

As, in our case, , , and (from equation 3), we obtain from (4) and (5) that the total magnetic flux is:

Taking into account that the magnetic flux density is given by:

and also considering (6) and that (), we obtain the magnetic flux density in the air gap:

As the magnetic pull force is given by:

and also considering (8), and that (), and the relative magnetic permeability of air is , the magnetic pull per pole becomes:

Thus, we obtain the total magnetic pull force:
Solution