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Calculates the variance of a given set of data.
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template<class T> doublevarianceintn
booltotal = false )
Consider a discrete random variable X. The variance X of is defined as

Note that (X-E[X])^2 is a new random variable (it's a function of X ). The variance is also denoted as \sigma^2. A useful formula that follows inmediately from the definition is that

In words, the variance of X is the second moment of X minus the first moment squared. The variance of a random variable determines a level of variation of the possible values of X around its mean. However, as this measure is squared, the standard deviation is used instead when one wants to talk about how much a random variable varies around its expected value.

If we cannot analyze a whole population but we have to take a sample, we define its variance (denoted as s^2) with the formula:

where \overline{x} is the aritmetic mean . The value for s^2 is an estimator for \sigma. \[]

If the value of the boolean argument <em> total </em> is true, then the variance is computed using the following formula:


PlanetMath, http:planetmath.org/encyclopedia/Variance.html

Example 1

#include <codecogs/statistics/moments/variance.h>
#include <iostream>
int main()
   int x[5] = {3 , 1 , 5 , 6 , 9};
   double var = Statistics::Moments::variance<int>(5, x);
   std::cout << "The population variance is: " << var << std::endl;
   return 0;
The population variance is: 9.2


nthe size of the population
datathe actual population data given as an array
totalDefault value = false


return value the variance of the given set of data


Anca Filibiu (August 2005)
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