Discharge through a submerged orifice
Key FactsGyroscopic Couple: The rate of change of angular momentum () = (In the limit).
- = Moment of Inertia.
- = Angular velocity
- = Angular velocity of precession.
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic philosopher.
Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist.
Discharge Through A Wholly Drowned OrificeWhen the outlet side of an orifice is beneath the surface of liquid it is known as a wholly submerged orifice as shown in fig.1. In such orifices, the coefficient of contraction is equal to one. Consider a wholly drowned orifice discharging water as shown in fig.1. Let,
- = Height of water (on the upstream side) above the top of the orifice
- = Height of water (on the upstream side) above the bottom of the orifice
- = Difference between the two water levels on either side of the orifice
- = Coefficient of discharge
- = Coefficient of velocity
- = Coefficient of contraction
If depth of the drowned orifice (d) is given instead of and , then in such cases the discharge through the wholly drowned orifice is:
Example - Discharge through a wholly drowned orifice
A drowned orifice 1.5m wide and 0.5m deep is provided in one side of a tank. Find the discharge in liters/s through the orifice, if the difference of water levels on both the sides of the orifice be 4m. Take = 0.64.
- = 1.5m
- = 0.5m
- = 4m
- = 0.64
Discharge = 4250 liters/s