• http://facebook.com/
• https://www.google.com/accounts/o8/id
• https://me.yahoo.com

# Trigonometrical Formulae

A collection of formulae covering, Addition and subtraction of Sin cos and tan; Product formulae ; the solution of equations and the half angle formulae and the Inverser Ratioi

If OP and OQ are unit radii which make a angles with the x axis of B and A respectively. Then the coordinates of P are (Cos B ; sin B) and for Q (cos A ; sin A). By inspection the angle POQ is of magnitude A - B.

Using the Pythagora theorem,

Applying the cosine formula to triangle POQ:-

Equating equations (2) and (3)

This equation applies for all values of A and B

Writing for A

If B is replaced by - B and making use of the fact that cos B = cos(-B) and that - sin B = sin(-B).Then:-

Putting A = B

The above equation can be expressed in two different forms:-

Equation (8) can be treated the same way in which case:-

par Addition Formulae for the Tangent.

Divide the Numerator and the denominator by

If B is replaced in the above equation by - B

From equation (16) it can be seen that :-

It is worth noting that :-

This is a particular case of the more general formlua

Where stands for all the possible products of tan A ,tan B etc taken n at a time.

It follows from equation (21) that since the and if A, B, C are the angles of a triangle then:-

And

## The Product Formulae.

By adding the two above equations we get:-

And by subtraction:-

In these two new equations we can substitute (A + B) = X and (A - B) = Y from which :-

And

Proceeding in a similar way we get:-

and

## The Half Angle Formulae

By writing A = x/2 in formulae from the last sections :=

From equation (12)

And from (9) (10) (11)

and from equation (18)

These formulae allow us to express the sine; cosine; and tangent of an angle in terms of the tangent of the half angle. It is therefore possible to write

from which

Equation (36) can be re-written as :-

And from equation (37)

These three equations (40); (43) ; (46) are useful in the solution of a certain type of trigonometrical equation. They also have other important applications.

### Example 1

If tan find without tables the possible values of

to find

## The Auxiliary Angle

The equation in which a; b; c are known numerical quantities . A method of solution is to divide throughout by

If we introduce an angle whose tangent is b/a it can be seen that we can read off values for bot the sine and cosine. Hence the equation can be re-written as:-

The equation has now been reduced to one of the standard forms whose solution is known. Hence a value for can be found and as the value of is known ca be calculated. For real solutions it is necessary for the value of c to be less than

A second method of solution is to use the half angle formulae ( Equations (43) and (46)

This quadratic gives two values for t from which general value of can be found.

## The Inverse Notation

If sin = x where x is a given quantity numerically less than unity, wwe know that can be any one of a whole series of angles. Thus if can have a number of values. The inverse notation is used to denote the angle whose sine is x and the numerically smallest angle satisfying the relationship is chosen as the principle value. Here and in what follows we shall deal only with principle values and the statement to mean that is the angle that lies between radians whose sine is x. The statement means that is the inverse sine of x. On the continent this is sometimes written as

The graph of is, on thus that part of the graph with the x-axis horizontal and the axis vertical.As shown:-

In a similar way will be taken to denote the smallest angle whose cosine takes the same value for negative as for positive angles and we require a notation which gives an unique value of when x is given, we conventionally take as the angle lying between 0 and radians whose cosine is x.

For example

The graph of