Built in Beams
The bending of Built in Beams fixed at both ends.
A Beam is said to be Built-in or 'encastre' when both ends are rigidly fixed so that the slope remains horizontal - It is normal for both ends to be at the same level. In other words, it is assumed that built in beams have zero slope at each end, and therefore the total change of slope along the span is zero.In general terms, all other geometrical aspects remaining the same, a built in beam is considered stronger than a simply supported beam . As built in beams are statically indeterminate, techniques such as linear superposition are often used to solve problems associated with them. The bending moment for a loaded built in beam is normally maximum at the end joints. In this section we look at the Moment-Area method, and the Macaulay method (calculus method) to calculate the fixing moments and the end reaction.
Moment-area Method For Built In BeamsIt follows from the Moment-Area method (See Bending of Beams Part 3) that since the change of slope from end to end and the intercept are both zero, then:
Due to , and the Bending Moment at a distance from the left-hand end is given by:
This gives a straight line going from a value of at to at . From this can be drawn the Fixing Moment Diagram (See d). For the downward loads is a positive area (Sagging ) and is a negative area (Hogging ). Consequently, equations (1) and (2) reduce to:
And (Numerically) These give rise to two important statements:-
- Area of the Free Moment Diagram = Area of the Fixing Moment Diagram.
- The Moments of Areas of Free and Fixing Diagrams are equal.
Example - Example 1
Obtain expressions for the Maximum Bending Moment and deflection of a beam of length and a flexural rigidity . The Beam is fixed horizontally at both ends ( built in) and carries a load which is:
- a) Concentrated at mid-span.
- b) Uniformly distributed over the whole beam.
- a) Concentrated Load
Thus the combined Bending Moment diagram is as shown in the lower diagram. The Maximum Bending Moment is and occurs at the ends (Hogging) and the Centre (Sagging). By taking Moment-Areas about one end for half the beam, the intercept gives the deflection as:
- b) Uniform Load
The Area of the Fixing Moment diagram is Equating the areas of the Free and Fixing Moment diagrams gives This is the Maximum Bending Moment. As before the intercept about one end gives the deflection i.e.
Note: In comparing this equation with that shown in "Bending of Beams" Appendix 3 it must be remembered that is the weight per unit length and that is the total weight. i.e.
Macaulay MethodWhen the Bending Moment diagram does not lend itself to simplification into convenient areas, it may be quicker to use the calculus method (See Bending of Beams Part 3). This also has the advantage of giving the Fixing Moments and end Reactions directly, and enables the maximum deflection to be found.
Example - Example 1
A Beam of uniform Section is built in at each end and has a span of 20 ft. It carries a uniformly distributed load of on the left hand half together with a 12 ton load at 25 ft. from the left hand end. Find the end reactions and Fixing Moments and the magnitude and position of the maximum deflection.
and Taking the Origin at the left hand end and let the Fixing Moments be and . The Reactions and . Then
When Also when and
2) from (1)
Thus, From equation (1)
But = Total downwards Load =
And = Value of at
Since the concentrated load is greater than the total concentrated load and acts at an equal distance from the nearest end, it may be deduced that zero slope occurs at a value between 10 and 15 ft.
Solving this quadratic gives:
Substituting this value in the deflection equation gives:-
Thus the maximum deflection is given by: